A previous Fed official says the U.S. national bank ought to do the once in the past unbelievable: take loan fees underneath 0%

‘Phenomenal circumstances require remarkable activities. That is the reason the U.S. Central bank should battle a quickly extending downturn by taking loan fees underneath zero unexpectedly’

That is Narayana Kocherlakota writing in a commentary in Bloomberg Opinion on Friday.

The 56-year-old business analyst, who filled in as leader of the Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis from 2009 until 2015, contends that the U.S. national bank ought to follow its friends in Europe by taking benchmark rates, which remain at a range somewhere in the range of 0% and 0.25% after a progression of crisis rate cuts a month ago, negative without precedent for history.

The previous Fed official presents the defense that the financial demolition because of reactions to shorten the savage COVID-19 pandemic warrants a sudden stunning exhibition counter by the U.S. national bank.

“Terrifyingly high unemployment and potentially rapid disinflation are powerful arguments in favor,” Kocherlakota said. “Next week, the Fed should take interest rates at least a quarter percentage point below zero,” he said.

On Thursday, information from the Labor Department demonstrated another 4.4 million individuals documented new jobless cases for the week finished April 18, to push the aggregate over 26 million since the coronavirus emergency laid attack to the U.S. economy a month and a half back.

The spike in joblessness has likely pushed the jobless rate to somewhere in the range of 15% and 20%, a few business analysts gauge. The main other time in American history when joblessness was that high was in the beginning periods of the Great Depression very nearly a century prior.

Rates beneath 0% aren’t far away at current levels, however the Fed has been hesitant to bring loan a fees into negative area, and during the 2007-09 downturn they selected to utilize eccentric estimates like purchasing securities instead of setting negative financing costs.

During this ebb and flow viral emergency, the national bank has released a variety of improvement measures to relax seized up portions of the monetary market and to ease getting costs for business sectors, independent ventures and family units that have been severely harmed by the fatal irresistible malady cap developed in 2019.

The endeavors by the Fed have swelled its accounting report to $6.6 trillion in the week finished April 22, and is probably going to hit $9 trillion by the late spring, in view of certain financial specialists’ assessments.

Against that setting, and close by trillions more given out by the U.S. government, the Dow Jones Industrial Average DJIA, +1.10%, the S&P 500 file SPX, +1.39% and the Nasdaq Composite Index COMP, +1.64% have risen forcefully from bear-advertise lows hit on March 23.

President Donald Trump has been a major promoter of taking rates below zero, which have won in Europe for a considerable length of time and have existed in 33% of the world.

Be that as it may, there are ramifications for taking rates under 0%. Quite, it would get more enthusiastically — or, at any rate, costly — to set aside cash. Banks would charge negative rates on stores, implying that customers would be paying the bank for chance to set aside cash. What’s more, the bank’s benefits themselves would be harmed.

In any case, Kocherlakota says that negative rates would feed shopper request and urge banks to loan all the more forcefully at lower financing costs. The ex-Fed official says that stresses regarding money related soundness, the contention that bank offers would be troubled on the grounds that financial specialists would stress over their benefit, are lost considering the current natural danger that has assailed the market and the economy.

The Fed’s next approach meeting is April 28-29, which will finish up with a news gathering facilitated by Chairman Jerome Powell on Wednesday at 2:30 p.m. Eastern Time. The market is wagering that there is no way for a strategy change by then, in light of government supports fates, CME Group information appear.


China places worldwide financial recuperation into ‘fundamentally extraordinary landscape:’ Former Prime Minister of Australia

Exercises gained from the Great Recession recommend that China’s capacity to animate out of the coronavirus pandemic will be constrained, as per Former Prime Minister of Australia Kevin Rudd. Addressing , the present President of the Asia Society Policy Institute, said that Beijing faces critical requirements on the budgetary and money related switches it can pull as a result of the obligation the nation has amassed since 2008.

“China’s stimulus in 2009, 2010 assisted pulling the Asia-Pacific, and the global economy indirectly, into an earlier phase of recovery,” Rudd said. “But China being first hit by this one and not deploying anything like the 10% to 15% of GDP stimulus that they did in ’09-10, then we’re into a radically different terrain in terms of the global economic recovery.”

China is endeavoring to resuscitate its economy, after the coronavirus episode set a great part of the nation in lockdown in for quite a long time. Its monetary yield fell by 6.8% in the main quarter, denoting the primary compression since authentic records started.

While fabricating action has to a great extent returned, though with social separating limitations, the bounce back has not streamed down to the administrations area yet. In general retail deals declined by 15.8% in March, year on year, while inn inhabitance proportions stay not exactly 50% of ordinary levels, hauled somewhere around existing travel limitations.

The IMF has anticipated a 1.2% development rate for the year, yet Rudd said he anticipates that it should be “more like zero development.”

Notwithstanding the financial agony, China has neglected to convey on any expectations of an enormous boost bundle on the scale sent by the U.S. also, Europe up until this point. While Beijing has decided on exceptional bond issuances, appropriations, and decreased businesses’ social protection commitments, those measures have added up to simply over 2% of GDP, as per Reuters examination.

Rudd said China’s deliberate methodology so far focuses to three key imperatives: banter about the viability of Beijing’s methodology during the money related emergency, heaping obligation, and timing.

“It’s internally concluded that a lot was wasted (between 2009-2010), that it created asset price bubbles, which created downstream financial crises within the system, particularly in 2015. And therefore, it creates a political overhang, which is ‘I, Xi Jinping am not going to repeat Hu Jintao’s and Wen Jiabao’s mistakes,” Rudd said. “The debt to GDP ratio hanging around 320% of GDP, as you know, is not modest. That’s big by any global standard. Therefore, the central monetary authorities in China will be saying, ‘Whoa, let’s be very careful before we start adding another huge slice of public debt.’”

Rudd included that China might be picking to adopt a progressively down to earth strategy this time, given the idea of the financial shutdown, saying “tossing an entire pack of boost at economies right now until you have a full come back to work doesn’t really have similar impact for the basic explanation as shoppers are not acting regularly.

Worldwide reaction against the Chinese government may likewise confuse the monetary recuperation. While Beijing has openly occupied with clinical strategy via transporting basic supplies to global urban communities hardest hit by the infection, nations have progressively become wary of its goals, with reports of cost gouging and flawed gear and allegations the administration endeavored to coverup the seriousness of the flare-up in the underlying days. The powerlessness for nations to freely create individual defensive hardware inside their fringes has additionally provoked calls to decouple from China and draw fabricating nearer to home.

A week ago, Japan put aside $2.2 billion of its monetary improvement bundle to enable its makers to move creation outside of China. That came after White House Economic Advisor Larry Kudlow proposed the U.S. give motivating forces to organizations to move producing back home, in a meeting with Fox Business. EU Commission President Ursula von der Leyen has said the emergency exhibited that its part nations should “diminish conditions by shortening and enhancing our stockpile chains.”

Notwithstanding those geopolitical headwinds, Rudd said China’s worldwide standing will to a great extent rely upon its local monetary plan.

“Here is the $6,000 question: Will the Chinese leadership see this as a further warning bell to fully prosecute its own domestic market reform agenda further? Or will this cause conservatives within the Chinese leadership system to, in fact, reach for the protectionist mechanism as well to guide China to a gentler recovery?” Rudd said. “This is the open question in terms of how China emerges economically from this.”


Best tips to follow in 2020 for hiring a car transport service

To hire a good car transport service, you should always focus on selecting a reliable service. If you are doing your research and going through all the important things that matter the most, then you won’t be able to get the desired outcome. By focusing on the things that matter the most, you will be able to choose a reliable service out there. Make sure that you are checking all the new tips to choose the best car transport service out there.

If you are not focusing on all the important details that matter the most, then it will become difficult for you to choose a perfect service out there. We are going to share all the important things that you need to focus on so you can come up with a great solution. Let’s have a look at how you can manage things in the right way.

Get in touch with different companies

It is always necessary for you to get in touch with different companies when you are selecting a professional service. If you are getting multiple quotations for car transportation, then you will be able to make the right decision. You can get in touch with to compare the quality of the service and choose the right service. By getting in touch with various companies, you will be able to get multiple quotations so you can pick the right one. Moreover, you can ask all of your questions about the safety of your car so you can make up your mind.

Compare rates and services

One of the most important things that you should do is to compare rates and services. If you are comparing rates and services, then it will become a lot easier for you to choose the right car transport service. It is always necessary for you to choose a service after comparing the rates and quality of their service. It will allow you to make the right decision. It is always necessary for you to choose a reliable service to avoid problems later on.

Look for guarantees

Another important thing that you should do is to ask them for guarantees. If they are providing safety guarantees, then you should consider using their service. Make sure that you are asking all the important questions from them so you can make your decision. It is one of the most important things that you should focus on.



Avima Iron ore’s H1 65% Fe fines is considered a premium grade iron ore and the company has engaged internationally reputable surveying companies to ensure the grade and volumes are delivered with the highest integrity to its customers.

“Delivering the highest quality to our customers is of critical importance to us. We have entered into long term contracts which last for many years with our customers who are large steel makers. They have adjusted their steel manufacturing processes based on Avimas iron ore as their feedstock so it’s very important we deliver a consistent quality product” Socrates Vasiliades said.

The international surveyor work starts at the Avima mine site and quality control involves many samples are taken on a daily basis and laboratory tested. Weight verification also takes place at mine where all truck weights are checked on the certified weigh bridge. The trucks are tarped and sealed before making their 16 hour journey to Kribi port.

Once the iron ore arrives are Kribi port a similar process takes place however there is a draft survey carried out on the large vessels that will carry the iron ore to it’s overseas destination. Vessels carry between 85,000 to 140,000 tonnes.

The surveying both quality and weight and the chain of custody process is time consuming and costly. The company has committed to these processes as the priority is to deliver the iron ore as contracted to itslong-term customers.

Avima is committed to corporate and social programs.  Avima will train the local population so they can subsequently participate directly in the development of their business. Avima Iron Ore Limited is very focused on giving back to the community. 

Socrates Vasiliades has commented the company adopts practices that are up to international standards and strives to respect the environment. That is a fundamental part of what the company does which is situated in a beautiful and natural environment that host communities, exotic animals and vegetation, they need to ensure the impact on the environment of the mining project is reduced to a minimum. 


Fortel Making Office Atmosphere Fun for Employees with Smoothie Bike Ride

Fortel always comes up with innovative ideas regarding their working environment. The management believes that the employees never feel pressured and that they enjoy their work even if it gets very hectic. It is possible only and if only they are provided with a fun environment in which they can relax for some time. Apart from so many other things which Fortel is doing in this regard, a smoothie bike ride is a new addition to offer a fun atmosphere for employees.

Well, we know that a smoothie bike is a motionless bike that is attached to a blender. As soon as you start hitting the paddle, the blender starts to blend ingredients present in it. When you are done with the paddling, the smoothie is ready for you to drink. All you have to do is to put in the ingredients that you like, fruits, juices, or vegetables, and as a result, have your healthy smoothie with exercise for a few minutes.

Now keeping in mind, the concept of smoothie bike, and the hectic working routine of employees, Fortel has introduced this fun activity. This helps the employee divert attention while working and at the same time help the stay active during the working hours. Smoothie will help them recharge their inner energy and boost the ability to work even better.

This is how smoothie bikes are working as a fun factor for Fortel employees, and that is such an amazing initiative.

The benefits of smoothie bikes are not only that they help in making a smoothie and staying active, but there are so many others too. Here we will discuss a few more advantages of this activity for the employees of Fortel.

Smoothie bike is helping employee’s workout and develop better fitness of the cardiovascular system.

Muscle strength, endurance in whole body and flexibility also increase because it is a complete exercise.

Mobility of the joints, especially of legs, improves a lot with time as the employees keep on doing it every day.

Body fat level also reduces greatly because by doing this exercise, the whole-body engages in work and burns the fat in it.

Strength in the bones also develops due to this exercise, and along with this the smoothie has so many nutrients and milk or yogurt in it also adds to the strength.

Prevention from many diseases that arise due to long hours of sitting can also be avoided.

Every time Fortel introduces new things in the company, we see it is done by keeping in mind the employees. Smoothie bike initiative is a great example of that. It tells how much they give importance to their workforce, and how they are adding value to the company through different means. Every business owner, it starts to think like this, would be able to bring a revolutionary change in the business and lives of its employees just like Fortel brought it.

About Fortel 

Fortel was founded in 1998 by Surinder Nijjer, the business has now been established for more than 20 years and is one of the UK’s largest suppliers of labour in the rail and civil engineering sectors. The company started off as a small group of labours and now employees over 2000 staff. Fortel’s company motto is ‘By improving our workforce, we’re investing in yours’.


What are the top laptops at $150?

If you have a limited amount of money to spend on a laptop, you need to be very careful. You need to make the most out of your investment, and that means getting the best bang for your buck. It all comes down to value and quality, and with the right approach you can have a very good experience here. With that in mind, here are some of the best laptops(includes a battery) you can get at $150.

Lenovo Chromebook S340

This Chromebook has a lot going on for it. We like the high performance that it delivers, it’s really nice and it certainly manages to stand out right from the start. The unit has a dynamic feel right from the start, so it’s clearly for people that move around a loot. It has stellar connectivity for this price, and the eMMC storage is delivering a pretty fast bootup. They even give you 100 GB of cloud storage via Google Drive too.

Dell Latitude D830

Dell Latitude D830 is a 15.4” laptop with a really good display at this price. It has a dual core processor, 3 GB of DDR 2, 160 GB of storage, so it’s a rather good product to consider at this price. It will work with Windows 10 pretty well, and sometimes you can get it at a much lower price with sales. Basically, if you’re in a pinch and you need a cheap, yet dependable laptop then this is the one for you. Plus, it has just 1 pound, it’s rather light for the money.

Acer CB3-532

Even if the Acer Chromebook 15 doesn’t stand out when it comes to the features that it delivers, it’s still a pretty Chromebook with an elegant display and which is pretty light too. Considering the 15.6”, this is very light and it gets the job done with most tasks that you will need. Overall we found it to be a reliable tool and one that will push your experience to the next level. Just consider giving it a try if you want a very high-quality product at a decent price.

Acer Aspire 1

Acer Aspire 1 is an old school unit with plenty of interesting things to deliver here. The 14” screen is really good for what it is. And you do get 4 GB of RAM as well as 64 GB of eMMC storage. It’s a light unit that you can take with you anywhere you want. That really sets the tone for the value you get and the quality of it all. People love it because it’s reliable and dependable, plus it does bring in front a tremendous return on investment. 

As a whole, it’s easy to see that you can get a pretty good laptop for $150. Obviously it won’t compare with the more expensive options, but if you are in a pinch and want a pretty good return, then this can be well worth it. All you need is to check these models out and see which one seems to be the right fit for you!


Rajat Singla: An Innovative Entrepreneur with his Exceptional Digital Marketing Skills, taking the Industry by Storm

In a world that is entirely digitised in almost all areas & sectors also require people that make full use of such technologies & take complete advantage of it to make it use the right way for the people who need it & to help change their lives in many ways possible. Today, social media activities have surged so much that people are constantly looking out for experts in the industry to help them increase their awareness on the virtual space, to help them become popular not only in the online world but also otherwise with the help of digital media.

One such innovative & efficient mind is Rajat Singla who is putting in all his efforts towards fulfilling the client’s requirements & also dips his hands in other profitable businesses. Starting his journey in 2005 with a website called VIP Punjab, Rajat made the online portal for them, did all the related work for designing the website. Since then, Rajat never looked back & went ahead with starting his various businesses. One of them was the import/export business of PVC wall panels. His company named “Wall Decor” deals in importing products from China which he sells across India at wholesale.

The other business of Rajat is “Shiraj Media”, this company is essentially created to help various artists & celebrities with social media marketing & PR to help them increase their follower base on their social media accounts & also to gain more traction for them in the online world. Till now, Rajat & his company have roped in many celebrities as their clients to manage their media accounts & have also helped them achieve their requested goals in terms of increasing their brand awareness. The list of clients at Shiraj Media works includes not only actors & celebs but also includes other people like makeup artists, astrologers, models & even artists from the television industry.

Rajat with his diligent work has till now worked with people both from Bollywood & Hollywood & also for people from TV. His company & his ideas have been proved fruitful for many with their PR activities online, with their actions & activities towards improving the reputation of celebs, with their celebrity management efforts & have helped all of them tremendously to grow their online presence much more than before.

To learn what it takes to become this successful with different businesses at hand & to keep moving forward in life with the right attitude is what we need to master from Rajat & get inspired from.


James William Awad displays the true Entrepreneurship

James William Awad (@senior) accepts that innovative soul is something that you are brought into the world with. The originator of Triple One which has 13 organizations and tallying added to its repertoire has been building organizations since the age of 11. He began with a computer game that he completed the process of creating by the age of 12, at that point he proceeded onward to outsourcing at 14 years old, and from that point forward he’s been a programmer, author of an eCommerce organization and now Triple One, which is the world’s previously decentralized business.

James accepts that business people are conceived makers. Furthermore, that they will make things for making them, and not for any outside remuneration. Previously, it’s been significantly more hard for business visionaries to begin organizations. In any case, presently it’s simpler than any time in recent memory, says James.

James accepts that the appearance of coding and the web has achieved another period of business visionaries. Business visionaries with the capacity to manufacture things of scale without a gigantic group of individuals encompassing them. He began his first venture at 11 years old. Prior to the web, most 11-year-olds would have no taken shots at really constructing a genuine business. Their absolute best would almost certainly be building a lemonade stand or cutting their neighbor’s yards.

These days the web permits you to begin a wide assortment of organizations and furthermore permits you to work with individuals from everywhere throughout the world. Simply see James’ resume. He began outsourcing at 14 years old with organizations from everywhere throughout the world. He would assist them with coding their sites so as to include propelled highlights. His range of abilities was found out on the web, and he publicized his administrations on the web. He was recruited by somebody who never observed his face to face, and he even utilized an assumed name since he was too youthful to even consider working as a self employed entity.

In any case, James needs to make it considerably simpler for individuals to construct the organizations they need to assemble. This is the place Triple One comes in. It utilizes a decentralized framework to take contribution from clients everywhere throughout the world. Clients will have the option to decide on various parts of business, just as contribute their aptitudes to fabricate the business. They’ll get remunerated dependent upon the situation in accordance with the measure of significant worth they brought to the undertaking.

This will permit individuals from everywhere throughout the world to manufacture organizations in a joint effort with others they have never met. James is smoothing out the way toward building an organization, and he’s doing it such that will permit the normal individual to contribute as much as they need to it. Gone are the times of resolute CEOs and corporate metal. Clients will by and large settle on business choices by casting a ballot in. What’s more, the business will either flourish or bomb thus. In any case, it’s giving force back to the people. Practically like a business majority rules system.

James consistently needs to offer back to those less lucky than himself. Yet, he realizes that the most ideal approach to get somebody out isn’t to give them a fish however to show them how to angle. With Triple One, James is permitting anybody with the enterprising outlook to assemble a business with him. He trusts that along these lines, individuals who are persuaded will have the option to assume liability for their circumstance, and they will have a chance to work out of it. Anybody with a web association can turn into a piece of Triple One, and they can help assemble a business from the beginning.

Where the web has made it simpler for individuals to begin organizations. James is attempting to make it simpler for individuals to cooperate to assemble organizations. By adopting a decentralized strategy to dynamic and prizes, he will probably make business progressively moral also.

To keep up with James, follow him on Instagram.


US gives new direction for private company advances, constrains open organizations to bring assets back

The Small Business Administration gave new direction on Thursday that makes it “far-fetched” that huge traded on an open market organizations can get to the following round of financing for the U.S. government’s independent company alleviation program.

Organizations applying for coronavirus help supports must guarantee that the advances are fundamental and that they can’t tap different wellsprings of subsidizing, the SBA said. By definition, open organizations approach the capital markets. For example, Shake Shack restored the $10 million it traversed the PPP after it sold $150 million in new offers.

“It is unlikely that a public company with substantial market value and access to capital markets will be able to make the required certification in good faith,” the SBA said.

In a key detail, the SBA demonstrated that huge open organizations who tapped the PPP before the standard change can dodge examination by restoring the help advances in about fourteen days.

The Small Business Administration gave new direction on Thursday making it more uncertain that huge traded on an open market organizations can get to the following round of financing for the U.S. government’s independent company alleviation program. It additionally ventured up pressure on open organizations that have tapped assets to restore the cash.

The update comes after an open excitement that huge organizations tapped the office, known as the Paycheck Protection Program, for a huge number of dollars in credits while a large number of private companies presently can’t seem to get financing.

Organizations applying for the coronavirus alleviation finances must ensure that the credits are essential and that they can’t tap different wellsprings of cash, the SBA said. By definition, open organizations approach the capital markets. For example, Shake Shack said it restored the $10 million it got past the PPP after it sold $150 million in new offers.

“Borrowers still must certify in good faith that their PPP loan request is necessary,” the SBA said. “It is unlikely that a public company with substantial market value and access to capital markets will be able to make the required certification in good faith, and such a company should be prepared to demonstrate to SBA, upon request, the basis for its certification.”

The change comes as a second round of financing for PPP, after the underlying $350 billion was exhausted a week ago, is set to be endorsed by officials later Thursday. The program is set to get $310 billion in new assets, and industry officials have said that even this sum will probably last just days. There is no assurance that administrators will favor more cash for the program after that.

While the soul of the PPP, a key part of the Trump organization’s $2 trillion or more monetary reaction to the coronavirus pandemic, was to support private ventures, the standards during the program’s underlying round permitted huge eatery and lodging organizations to apply for advances of up to $10 million.

At the point when that occurred, and organizations including Ruth’s Chris Steakhouse and Potbelly Sandwich Shop were uncovered to have utilized the program, entrepreneurs got frustrated.

The kickback extended as organizations worth more than $100 million in the securities exchange effectively applied for help. Organizations including DMC Global, Wave Life Sciences and Fiesta Restaurant Group won the credits, as per a Tuesday look into note from Morgan Stanley.

Moneylenders including JPMorgan Chase and Bank of America have borne the brunt of the evaluate as entrepreneurs guaranteed that greater organizations got particular treatment while applying for the life saver. JPMorgan has explicitly denied that claim, while additionally unveiling that customers of its business banking division, which takes into account bigger organizations, for the most part fared better than those of its private company office.

In its most recent direction, the SBA seemed to permit banks to depend on borrowers’ confirmation about the genuine need of their credits.

In any case, in a key detail, the SBA demonstrated that enormous open organizations who tapped the PPP before the standard change can maintain a strategic distance from examination by restoring the alleviation advances in about fourteen days:

“Any borrower that applied for a PPP loan prior to the issuance of this guidance and repays the loan in full by May 7, 2020 will be deemed by SBA to have made the required certification in good faith,” the SBA said.


Mohd J Asfour: A shining example of an entrepreneur from rags to riches

They say the faster you start putting efforts towards something, the faster the money you make from it. No matter how simple this sounds, it is not. It is never easy for people to start a career very early in life. A few can only deal with the struggles & the hurdles that come with it & rare are those who even overcome those difficulties in life to prove their mettle in their respective industries.

One such shining example who started from zero but today is one of the youngest heroes in business becoming the “Youngest Jordanian Millionaire” is Mohd Asfour. Having a passion for cars, Asfour in a very short period of time could manage to make his bank balance thicker by gaining $1 Million. Founding & launching his dream, “LR Miami” he proved his craziness & love for cars that helped him get transformed from an engineer into a success story & a millionaire.

A Jordanian American, Asfour completed his engineering in Electrical Power and energy from Princess Sumayah University for Technology (PSUT), Amman, Jordan & graduated in 2018. He even went to the US for completing his MBA in 2019. Starting his career as an electrical engineer at Fawaz Al Hokair real estate company in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, Asfour then moved to Dammam for a building project “Al-Nakheel Mall” with the same organisation.

While this young mind was still getting a degree in MBA, he started a pet service on Instagram called “Woof Woof Services”. And, then it was time to make his biggest dream to transform into a reality, he founded his company named LR Miami in December 2019, which is a company that deals with lavish & exotic car rentals. A garage that started off with only one car has now expanded itself as a large company with 21 luxurious cars. Asfour says that his company even went viral when he started advertising for Bangenergy & Kenzu streetwear.

For any entrepreneur to become successful, first he/she has to start a journey being a beginner & be ready to face the hurdles that life throws at them. The same has been done by Asfour who never stopped at any bumps in his life journey & kept moving slowly & gradually to reach where he is today. Getting a hold of the current trends in technology & using the right strategies in life & business, Asfour carves a clear path for himself that allows him to transform any business into a successful venture.

We need to learn from people like Asfour coming from humble backgrounds, to make every day productive by learning new things at every step in life & to know how to implement those learnings to alter & transform a business into a fruitful one. It is already said that LR Miami will have an estimated net worth of $2.4 Million by the end of this year.